AMERICA – Part 3 – The Stamp Act Crisis

England’s prime minister, Grenville, if he had tried, could not have devised a better way of antagonizing the colonists than by introducing the Stamp Act of 1756 ( ), which placed a tax on almanacs, newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, insurance policies, sip’s papers, operating licenses for taverns and shops, and even dice and playing cards. The Sugar Act of 1764 had largely affected New England merchants, whose business it hampered. The Stamp Act, by contrast, affected all Americans, and as a result, evoked opposition from some of the wealthiest and most powerful groups in the colonies: lawyers, merchants, printers, tavern owners and land speculators.

The colonists were not as upset about the costs of the Stamp Act as they were about the precedent it had apparently established. Prior to the Stamp Act, taxes were used to regulate trade and commerce, not to directly raise money for the British Empire. Colonists were almost unanimous in their opposition to a direct tax, fearing that if they did not resist, more burdensome taxes would follow. Moreover, Parliament had failed to obtain the consent of the colonial assemblies before imposing the tax. Some of the delegates to the Virginia House of Burgesses ( ) proceeded to challenge the legality of the Stamp Act and by implication, the right of Parliament to tax the colonies at all without first securing their consent.

Patrick Henry also introduced seven resolutons in which he asserted that Americans, as subjects of the Crown, had the same rights as Englishmen, and that only local representatives could levy taxes on the colonies. Virginians, Henry declared, should pay no taxes except those voted by the Virginia Assembly, and anyone who advocated the right of Parliament to tax Virginians should be deemed an enemy of the colony. The House of Burgesses defeated the most radical of Henry’s proposals, but all of them were printed and circulated throughout the colonies as the “Virginia Resolves“.

Foremost among the Virginia protestors was Patrick Henry. On May 29, 1765, Henry made a dramatic speech in the house of Burgesses in which he concluded that George III, like earlier tyrants, might lose his throne and perhaps his head if he did not reverse current policies. Henry is reputed to have ended his speech with the famous injunction: “Caesar had his Brutus; Charles the First, his Cromwell; and George the Third may profit by their example. It this be treason, make the most of it“.

In Massachusetts, James Otis similarly persuaded his fellow legislators that the Stamp Act was illegitimate. He called for an inter-colonial congress to act against it. In October 1765, the Stamp Act Congress met in New York, composed of delegates from nine colonies. They decided to petition the king and both houses of Parliament for redress. The petition conceded that Americans owned Parliament “all due subordination”, but at the same time it denied that Parliament could tax the colonies.

Meanwhile, during the summer of 1765, serious riots had broken out in several cities along the Atlantic seaboard, the most serious of them in Boston. Men – shopkeepers and artisans (originally called The Loyal Nine and who were against the Stamp Act) later became the newly organized Sons of Liberty who then terrorized stamp agents and set the stamps ablaze. Many agents hastily resigned, and the sale of stamps in the colonies virtually ceased.

The violence in Boston continued to escalate when a mob attacked such pro-British aristocrats as the lieutenant governor, Thomas Hutchinson. Privately, Hutchinson opposed the Stamp Act, but as an officer of the Crown, he felt an obligation to uphold it. For his devotion to duty, Hutchinson paid a high price. An angry mob pillaged and destroyed his elegant home.

The Stamp Act thus provoked serious tension between the British government and the American colonies. The crisis subsided when Parliament backed down. It was not the colonial protests, speeches, resolutions, petitions, or even riots that deterred authorities in London; their attitude changed as the result of economic pressure.

 Beginning in 1764, many colonists boycotted English goods to protest the Sugar Act. By 1765, they had extended the boycott to include goods covered by the Stamp Act. The Sons of Liberty intimidated those colonists who refused to participate. Having lost their colonial markets, English merchants implored Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act

…to be continued with Part 4 – The Townshend Acts


AMERICA – Part 2 – The Road to Revolution

With the end of the French and Indian War in 1763 ( ) , the English were at peace for the first time in more than fifty years, but new problems awaited the British Crown. It was clear to British statesmen that the previous decade had been fraught with a number of vexing problems in trying to manage their vast and growing empire. Saddled with a national debt of approximately $175 million, on which the annual interest alone amounted to $ million, the English government desperately sought new sources of revenue. The colonies were the logical place to look for them. Yet, the experience of the French and Indian War made it clear that extracting money from the colonies would not be easy. The colonists were unwilling to allow Parliament to tax themk, and were reluctant to levy tases on themselves.

The problems of managing the Empire were compounded after the French and Indian War by a fundamental shift in imperial policy. In the past, the English government viewed the empire as a commercial venture and opposed the acquisition of territory for its own sake. After 1763, a number of English and colonial leaders argued that land itself was of value. Land could sustain a huge population, generate abundant revenue from taxes and other sources, and confer imperial splendor upon England itself.

The territory added to the British Empire as a result of the French and Indian War doubled its size. The difficulties of settling, administering, defending and governing these holdings were immensely complex. Unfortunately, the expansion of the British Empire took place in the context of a worsening debt crisis in England itself. Landowners and merchants staggered under burdensome tases, and objected to additional levies. Their resentment of the colonists deepened, for they believed that the colonists had contributed little to support a war fought largely for their benefit. They believed that only the imposition of taxes on the colonists could relieve the financial burdens of the empire.

George Grenville, the prime minister of England, like many of his fellow Englishmen believed that the colonies had been coddled for far too long. They should now be compelled to pay some of the costs of defending and administering the Empire, and he quickly moved to increase the authority of Parliament in the colonies. In 1764, Grenville announced the Sugar Act ( ) , which was to eliminate the illegal sugar trade between the colonies and the French and Spanish West Indies. In addition, the act provided for the establishment of vice-admiralty courts in America that would try accused smugglers and also discourage the possibility of having cases heard before sympathetic jurors of their peers. The Sugar Act also placed duties on imported sugar, coffee, indigo and wine.

In September, Parliament passed the Currency Act of 1764 ( ) , which effectively gave the British Empire control over currency in the colonies. Until this point, colonists only had access to currency through trade with the British Empire. Suffering from a shortage of hard currency, the colonists had created their own paper currency in the form of Bills of Credit, the value of which differed from one colony to another. British merchants and creditors did not like being paid in a currency that wasn’t based on any real value system and could easily depreciate in value. the Currency Act sought to protect them by making paper currency no longer valid for the payment of private debts.

In addition, colonial legislatures were ordered to withdraw all paper currency already in circulation within a reasonable period of time. The rationale for the Currency Act was to end inflation by reducing the money supply. Unfortunately, the colonies were in the midst of a severe depression, and limiting the amount of money available made a bad situation worse. Now colonists could not obtain the money needed to conduct business or to pay increased duties and taxes. In the colonists’ eyes, the British government appeared unconcerned about their economic welfare.

…to be continued with Part 3 – The Stamp Act Crisis


AMERICA – Part I – The Beginning

Election Years come and go, and so do politicians. But one thing remains constant: invoking the names of the Founding Fathers when trying to score political points with voters. The practice of making comparisons to those men who helped establish the nation is not new, nor is associating the personalities and politics of the Founding Fathers with current political agendas.


In the rush to claim the Founding Fathers for a particular political issue or party, certain facts may be ignored or lost. Truth be told, commanding the legacy of the Founding Fathers is not as simple as it might appear. The Founding Fathers were not a unified, monolithic group. They were a curious mix of occupations and backgrounds: farmers, inventors, merchants, writers, politicians, judges, lawyers, scientists, doctors and teachers. One was a college president. Three were retired. Twelve were slaveholders. Most were natives of the thirteen colonies. Nine had emigrated from a variety of conutries and regions, including England, Ireland, Scotland and the West Indies. Some were quite wealthy, others were well-to-do and some atruggled daily with financial problems.

They did not share exactly the same beliefs or principles, and they did not always agree with one another. They did not even have a common political agenda. Despite their many differences, these men agreed on one important point: freedom from tyranny was so vital and so precious it was worth risking their property, their reputations and their lives to achieve it.

When people reference the Founding Fathers, they are often referring to a certain list of names: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, James Madison and Alexsander Hamilton. While these men can be thought of as the primary group of Founding Tathers, in fact the number of men involved in the nation’s foundidng was much greater. According to historian R. B. Bernstein, author of  The Founding Fathers Reconsidered, most historians define the Founding Fathers as a larger group that includes individuals who were not present at the signing of the Declaration of Independence or who helped draft the Constitution, but whose contributions to the building of the United States are still valuable and helped those other Founding Fathers to achieve their goals.

The majority of Americans has likely never experienced a time when they could not think, sayh, and do what they pleased. Although they must, of course, obey the laws of the land, Americans are free to vote for the candidate of their candidate of there choice. Americans are also free to criticize those elected to public office. Americans may speak their minds on a host of matters. They are free to work, live, and travel where they please. Americans are free to practice religion as they see fit, or not at all if they so choose. These freedoms that the presnet generation takes for granted can make itdifficult to appreciate the struggles and risks that the Founding Fathers confronted.

Many of these men have assumed a larger-than-life status. In some respects, they were most remarkable men who were called on to carry out special duties, but every single one of them was also human.

The term ‘Founding Fathers” often refers to those who contributed to the establishment of American independence and the creation of a new nation. We have accepted that conventional definition because there is no compelling reason to change it, and have chosen to feature a number of individuals who played a key role in the fight for independence and/or the founding of the United States. The men chosen for this volume include those who wrote and those who signed the Declaration of Independence. These are the “Signers”. Those who helped craft the Constitution must also be recognized. They were the “Framers”. It must also be noted that those who do not belong in either of the other categories but who nonetheless made valuable contributions to Americn independence and liberty must be recognized.

The world of the Founding Fathers encompassed some of the most important events in American history. It was a road that started out as a desire for colonial autonomy from the British Crown that eventually led to a quest for freedom as a new nation. In the process, a war was fought, even as patriot leaders debated and argued over what this new free nation would be. No one had a map or a guide to what constituted this new country. Yet somehow, this seemingly disparate group of men from a wide variety of backgrounds and interest were able to craft a new nation bound by new documents that talked of freedom equality and government by and for the people. All very radical concepts made even more amazing in light of the gentlemen who dreamt, argued and wrote of them.

…to be continued with Part 2 –The Road to Revolution

Source: Founding Fathers – by Meg Greene, MA, MS and Paula M. Stathakis, PHD

Aadamsmedia – Avon, Nassachusetts

WWII Aircraft Facts/Photos

 WWII Aircraft Facts/Photos and figures

Most Americans who were not adults during WWII have no understanding of the magnitude of it.  This listing of some of the aircraft facts gives a bit of insight to it. 

276,000 aircraft manufactured in the US.

43,000 planes lost overseas, including 23,000 in combat. 

14,000 lost in the continental U.S.

Statistics from Flight Journal magazine.
THE COST of DOING  BUSINESS—- The staggering cost of war.
THE PRICE OF VICTORY (cost of an aircraft in WWII dollars)

B-17       $204,370.     P-40       $44,892.
B-24       $215,516.     P-47       $85,578.
B-25       $142,194.     P-51       $51,572.
B-26       $192,426.     C-47       $88,574.
B-29       $605,360.     PT-17     $15,052.
P-38         $97,147.     AT-6       $22,952.


From Germany’s invasion of Poland Sept. 1, 1939 and ending with Japan’s surrender Sept. 2, 1945 — 2,433 days.

  From 1942 onward, America averaged 170 planes lost a day.


Ilyushin IL-2 Sturmovik                                  36,183
Yakolev Yak-1,-3,-7, -9                               31,000+

Messerschmitt Bf-109                                  30,480
Focke-Wulf Fw-190                                      29,001
Supermarine Spitfire/Seafire                        20,351
Convair B-24/PB4Y Liberator/Privateer       18,482
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt                          15,686
North American P-51 Mustang                     15,875

Junkers Ju-88                                              15,000

Hawker Hurricane                                        14,533

Curtiss P-40 Warhawk                                 13,738

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress                         12,731

Vought F4U Corsair                                      12,571

Grumman F6F Hellcat                                  12,275

Petlyakov Pe-2                                             11,400

Lockheed P-38 Lightning                              10,037

Mitsubishi A6M Zero                                    10,449

North American B-25 Mitchell                        9,984

Lavochkin LaGG-5                                         9,920
Note: The LaGG-5 was produced with both water-cooled (top) and air-cooled (bottom) engines.

Grumman TBM Avenger                                9,837

Bell P-39 Airacobra                                        9,584

Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar                                    5,919

DeHavilland Mosquito                                   7,780

Avro Lancaster                                              7,377

Heinkel He-111                                              6,508

Handley-Page Halifax                                    6,176

Messerschmitt Bf-110                                    6,150

Lavochkin LaGG-7                                         5,753

Boeing B-29 Superfortress                            3,970

Short Stirling                                                  2,383

Sources:  Rene Francillon,  Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific war; Cajus Bekker, The Luftwaffe Diaries;  Ray Wagner, American Combat Planes; Wikipedia.

For photos of the above aircraft go to:

According to the AAF Statistical Digest, in less than four years (December 1941- August 1945), the US Army Air Forces lost 14,903 pilots, aircrew and assorted personnel plus 13,873 airplanes — inside the continental United States.  They were the result of 52,651 aircraft accidents (6,039 involving fatalities) in 45 months.

In a single 376 plane raid in August 1943, 60 B-17s were shot down. That was a 16 percent loss rate and meant 600 empty bunks in England.  In 1942-43 it was statistically impossible for bomber crews to complete a 25-mission tour in Europe.

Pacific theatre losses were far less (4,530 in combat) owing to smaller forces committed.  The worst B-29 mission, against Tokyo on May 25, 1945, cost 26 Superfortresses, 5.6 percent of the 464 dispatched from the Marianas.

On  average, 6,600 American servicemen died per month during WWII, about 220 a day. By the end of the war, over 40,000 airmen were killed in combat theatres and another 18,000 wounded.  Some 12,000 missing men were declared dead, including a number “liberated” by the Soviets but never returned.  More than 41,000 were captured, half of the 5,400 held by the Japanese died in captivity, compared with one-tenth in German hands.   Total combat casualties were pegged at 121,867.

US manpower made up the deficit.  The AAF’s peak strength was reached in 1944 with 2,372,000 personnel, nearly twice the previous year’s figure.

The losses were huge—but so were production totals.  From 1941 through 1945, American industry delivered more than 276,000 military aircraft. That number was enough not only for US Army, Navy and Marine Corps, but for allies as diverse as Britain, Australia, China and Russia.  In fact, from 1943 onward, America produced more planes than Britain and Russia combined.  And more than Germany and Japan together 1941-45.

However, our enemies took massive losses.  Through much of 1944, the Luftwaffe sustained uncontrolled hemorrhaging, reaching 25 percent of aircrews and 40 planes a month.  And in late 1944 into 1945, nearly half the pilots in Japanese squadrons had flown fewer than 200 hours.  The disparity of two years before had been completely reversed.

Experience Level:
Uncle Sam sent many of his sons to war with absolute minimums of training. Some fighter pilots entered combat in 1942 with less than one hour in their assigned aircraft.
The 357th Fighter Group (often known as The Yoxford Boys) went to England in late 1943 having trained on P-39s.   The group never saw a Mustang until shortly before its first combat mission. 

A high-time P-51 pilot had 30 hours in type.  Many had fewer than five hours.  Some had one hour.

With arrival of new aircraft, many combat units transitioned in combat.  The attitude was, “They all have a stick and a throttle.  Go fly `em.” When the famed 4th Fighter Group converted from P-47s to P-51s in February 1944, there was no time to stand down for an orderly transition.   The Group commander, Col. Donald Blakeslee, said, “You can learn to fly `51s on the way to the target. 
A future P-47 ace said, “I was sent to England to die.”  He was not alone.   Some fighter pilots tucked their wheels in the well on their first combat mission with one previous flight in the aircraft.  Meanwhile, many bomber crews were still learning their trade:  of Jimmy Doolittle’s 15 pilots on the April 1942 Tokyo raid, only five had won their wings before 1941.   All but one of the 16 copilots were less than a year out of flight school.
In WWII flying safety took a back seat to combat.  The AAF’s worst accident rate was recorded by the A-36 Invader version of the P-51: a staggering 274 accidents per 100,000 flying hours.   Next worst were the P-39 at 245, the P-40 at 188, and the P-38 at 139.  All were Allison powered.
Bomber wrecks were fewer but more expensive.  The B-17 and B-24 averaged 30 and 35 accidents per 100,000 flight hours, respectively– a horrific figure considering that from 1980 to 2000 the Air Force’s major mishap rate was less than 2.

The B-29 was even worse at 40; the world’s most sophisticated, most capable and most expensive bomber was too urgently needed to stand down for mere safety reasons. The AAF set a reasonably high standard for B-29 pilots, but the desired figures were seldom attained. 

The original cadre of the 58th Bomb Wing was to have 400 hours of multi-engine time, but there were not enough experienced pilots to meet the criterion.  Only ten percent had overseas experience.  Conversely, when a $2.1 billion B-2 crashed in 2008, the Air Force initiated a two-month “safety pause” rather than declare a “stand down”, let alone grounding.

The B-29 was no better for maintenance. Though the R3350 was known as a complicated, troublesome power-plant, no more than half the mechanics had previous experience with the Duplex Cyclone.   But they made it work.

Perhaps the greatest unsung success story of AAF training was Navigators.  The Army graduated some 50,000 during the War.  And many had never flown out of sight of land before leaving “Uncle Sugar” for a war zone.  Yet the huge majority found their way across oceans and continents without getting lost or running out of fuel — a stirring tribute to the AAF’s educational establishments.

Cadet To Colonel:
It was possible for a flying cadet at the time of Pearl Harbor to finish the war with eagles on his shoulders.  That was the record of John D. Landers, a 21-year-old Texan, who was commissioned a second lieutenant on December 12, 1941.  He joined his combat squadron with 209 hours total flight time, including 2½ in P-40s.  He finished the war as a full colonel, commanding an 8th Air Force Group — at age 24.
As the training pipeline filled up, however those low figures became exceptions. 
By early 1944, the average AAF fighter pilot entering combat had logged at least 450 hours, usually including 250 hours in training.  At the same time, many captains and first lieutenants claimed over 600 hours.

At its height in mid-1944, the Army Air Forces had 2.6 million people and nearly 80,000 aircraft of all types. 
Today the US Air Force employs 327,000 active personnel (plus 170,000 civilians) with 5,500+ manned and perhaps 200 unmanned aircraft. 
The 2009 figures represent about 12 percent of the manpower and 7 percent of the airplanes of the WWII peak.

Whether there will ever be another war like that experienced in 1940-45 is doubtful, as fighters and bombers have given way to helicopters and remotely-controlled drones over Afghanistan and Iraq.  But within living memory, men left the earth in 1,000-plane formations and fought major battles five miles high, leaving a legacy that remains timeless.

Submitted by former crew member Fred Woods

Naval Station Norfolk

Naval Station Norfolk (NS), in Norfolk, VA, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces in the United States Fleet Forces Command, those operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean.

NS Norfolk, also known as the Norfolk Naval Base, occupies about four miles (6 km) of waterfront space and seven miles of pier and wharf space of the Hampton Roads peninsula known as Sewell’s Point. It is the world’s largest Naval Station, supporting 75 ships and 134 aircraft alongside 14 piers and 11 aircraft hangars, and houses the largest concentration of U.S. Navy forces. Port Services controls more than 3,100 ships’ movements annually as they arrive & depart their berths.

Air Operations conducts over 100,000 flight operations each year, an average of 275 flights per day or one every six minutes. Over 150,000 passengers and 264,000 tons of mail and cargo depart annually on Air Mobility Command (AMC) aircraft and other AMC-chartered flights from the airfield’s AMC Terminal. It is the hub for Navy logistics going to the U.S. European Command and U.S. Central Command theaters of operations, as well as to the Caribbean areas under U.S. Southern Command.

For further information and History of Naval Station Forfolk go to:

Naval Training Center – San Diego, CA

Naval Training Center San Diego (NTC San Diego) (1923–1997) is a former United States Navy base located at the north end of San Diego Bay. The Naval Training Center site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and many of the individual structures are designated as historic by the city of San Diego.[2]

The base was closed by the Base Realignment and Closure (or BRAC) 1993 commission at the end of the Cold War. It is now the site of Liberty Station, a mixed-use community being redeveloped and repurposed by the City of San Diego.

In the mid – 1920s, the City of San Diego hoped to strengthen its economic ties with the military, and offered the Navy more than 200 acres of land in Point Loma at the north end of San Diego Bay, in an effort to entice it to move the Recruit Training Station from San Francisco. Then – congressman William Kettner is credited with key leadership in the effort to establish the Naval Training Center and other Navy bases in San Diego. Congress authorized the center in 1919, construction began in 1921, and the base was commissioned in 1923. The first commandant was Capt. David F. Sellers.

Throughout its 70-year history as a military base, the mission of Naval Training Center (NTC) San Diego was to provide primary, advanced and specialized training for members of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Naval Reserve.

In support of that mission, NTC expanded to include 300 buildings with nearly three million square feet of space. In designing the first buildings at the training station, architedt Frank Walter Stevenson adopted the Mission, Revival style. The initial buildings (now the Historic Core) were oriented along two main axes running north-south. Within a few years, harbor improvements deepened the channel and anchorages in San Diego Bay and added 130 acrew of filled land to the Naval Training Station, later renamed the Naval Training Center. Development of the base occurred in phases, often in direct response to national defense priorities. As a result, there was no comprehensive plan for NTC, and buildings are eventually expanded to almost 550 acres.

During World War II the base housed up to 33,000 men, of whom 25,000 were recruits. In the postwar period the base population dropped to a low of 5,800 men; but the base reached peak population of 40,000 during the Korean War. In 1952, funding was approved to convert six recruit barracks on board NTC into classrooms, and to expand recruit training facilities through construction of a permanent recruit camp on the undeveloped property lying to the south and east of the estuary. The six recruit classrooms went into service in 1953. Construction of the new camp, later named Camp Nimitz, was completed in 1955. This new home for recruits initially provided 16 barracks for 3,248 Sailors. There was also a galley with eight different mess hall wings big enough to accommodate 5,000 Sailors.

In late 1965, a new demand for trained Navy personnel to man additional ships and overseas billets, called into service by the Vietnam War, surged the onboard recruit population to an excess of 18,000. Concurrently, expansion plans and projects continued with the laying of a foundation for a new 8,000-man messing facility adjacent to Bainbridge Court. Additionally, an ambitious program outlaid over five years planned extensive upgrade and construction of new classrooms for 31 apprentice class “A” and advanced schools, administrative facilities, and barracks for NTC. These upgrades were completed by 1970.

By the early 1990s, San Diego had become home to more than one-sixth of the Navy’s entire fleet. San Diego had more than a dozen major military installations, accounting for nearly 20 percent of the local economy with more than 133,000 uniformed personnel and another 30,000 civilians relying on the military for their livelihood.

For more information and History go to:

Naval Training Center – Great Lakes IL

Naval Station Great Lakes is the home of the United States Navy’s only boot camp, located near the city of N. Chicago, IL, in Lake County. Important tenant commands include the Recruit Training Command, Training Support Center and Navy Recruiting District Chicago. Naval Station Great Lakes is the second largest military installation in Illinois and the largest training station in the Navy. The base has 1,153 buildings situated on 1,628 acres and has 50 miles of roadway to provide access to the base’s facilities. Within the naval service, it has several different nicknames, including “The Quarterdeck of the Navy“, or the more derogatory “Great Mistakes“.

The original 39 buildings built between 1905 and 1911 were designed by Jarvis Hunt.

The base is like a small city, with its own fire department, Naval Security Force, and public works department.

One of the landmarks of the area is Building 1, also known as the clocktower building. Completed in 1911, the building is made of red brick, and has a tower that stands 300 feet over the third floor of the building. The large parade ground in front of the administration building is named Ross Field.

In 1996, Recruit Training Center (RTC) Great Lakes became the Navy’s only basic training facility. The Base Realignment and Closure Commission of 1993 resulted in the closure of Naval Training Center San Diego, California and Naval Training Center Orlando, FL, their associated Recruit Training Commands, and the consolidation of US Navy enlisted recruit training to Great Lakes. Approximately 40,000 recruits pass through Recruit Training Command annually with an estimated 7,000 recruits onboard the installation at any time. RTC Great Lakes has been active for over 100 years.
For more information and History go to:

Naval Training Center – Orlando, FL

 The History of the Naval Training Center, Orlando – (The Rudder, Company 169 Yearbook, 1970)

Commissioned on July 1,1968, the Naval Training Center, Orlando, was established to enhance the manpower training capabilities of the United States Navy. Occupying the site of the former Orlando Air Force Base, the Navy’s third training center rapidly became a show place among training commands in the armed forces.

The Commander, Naval Training Center, was tasked with “providing basic indoctrination for enlisted personnel, and primary, advanced, and specialized training for officer and enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Navy Reserve.”

A decision was made in the nation’s capital to develop a third Naval Training Center, and on December 6, 1966, the Honorable Robert H. B. Baldwin, then Under Secretary of the Navy, announced that the city of Orlando had been chosen as the site of the Navy’s newest and most modern training facility.

Orlando was selected because of its year-round climate, availability of transportation, sufficient family housing, and availability of the Orlando Air Force Base under the Department of Defense Base Closure Program.

The newly constructed Recruit Training Command featured modern and functional buildings and presented a campus-like atmosphere. Commissioned with the Naval Training Center, the Recruit Training Command provided a smooth transition from civilian life for enlistees into the naval service.

Additionally, the Naval Training Center was host command for the Naval Training Device Center, which was responsible for the research, development, production,’ maintenance, and modification of air, sea, subsurface, land, and space trainers applicable to all types of military situations.

Another tenant command of the Naval Training Center was the Naval Hospital, Orlando, then, a 200-bed facility. The Hospital’s combined medical and dental staff of over 400 supported the Naval Training Center and other military installations in the Central Florida region, as well as dependents and retirees.

At the time, a modern “high rise” replacement hospital was planned for the future, and this facility would provide the most modern and complete medical care to the ever-increasing active duty and retired military population of the Central Florida area.

On November 1, 1969, the Service School Command was established. It initially comprised two schools, the Naval Advanced Undersea Weapons School (AUWS) and the Personnelman Class “A” School. The AUWS was housed in a new brick structure, located on 6, 100 square feet of real estate, and encompassed 109,000 square feet of classrooms, laboratories and an auditorium. The PN “A” School was housed in the old Air Force Photo Squadron Building on the southwest shore of Lake Baldwin.

Another tenant unit was the Navy Finance Office, Orlando, which prior to the commissioning of the Naval Training Center, was a branch of the main office at Jacksonville, Florida. The Orlando Finance Office was responsible for disbursing support to 17 military activities in the Central Florida region, and rendered civilian disbursing services to six organizations.

Additionally, the Center hosted the Navy Printing and Publications Service Branch Office, the Defense Contract Administration Services District, and the Resident Officer-in-Charge of Construction.

The Recruit Training Command had an average on-board load of about 3600 recruits occupying its five modern barracks, each of which housed 12 recruit companies. These five barracks, plus a 4,600-man mess hall, a classroom building, a recruit chapel, a training ship mock-up, and other facilities comprised the first camp of the Recruit Training Command.

The second recruit camp was identical to the first with five barracks and additional support buildings for training purposes. Construction on the second camp began in Fiscal Year 1969, with targeted completion date in mid-1973. The recruit population then exceeded 8,000.

The two camps interconnected by a “central core,” consisting of two 26-classroom training buildings connected by the Television Building, which housed the closed-circuit television system. Television provided a basic supplement to the academic instruction in recruit training.

For additional information and History go to:

Naval Training Center – Bainbridge, MD

United States Naval Training Center, Bainbridge (USNTC Bainbridge) was the US Navy Training Center located at Port Deposit, Maryland, on the bluffs of the northeast bank of the Susquehanna River. It was active from 1942 to 1976.

The training center occupied the former campus of the Tome School for boys. Its was ideally located in the militarized U.S. East Coast of  WWII, and was accessible via Maryland Rt 222 about halfway between US1 & US40, approximately 35 miles  northeast of Baltimore, MD, and 75 miles from Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia, PA. The center was placed under the command of the Commander of the Fifth Naval District, based in Norfolk, VA.

The site was approved by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and the property of the Jacob Tome school for boys was expanded, by government purchase, from 330 acres  to 1,132 acres . Eggers & Higgins, the architects on the Thomas Jefferson Memorial was among the architects for the center’s construction. The center was expanded with an additional five hundred buildings and was activated on October 1, 1942. Ten days later the Center was opened and the first batch of U.S. Navy recruits were admitted for “boot camp” training and indoctrination.

President Roosevelt personally chose the name of “Bainbridge” for the Center in honor of Commodore William Bainbridge who had commanded the famous American frigate Constitution during the War of 1812 and defeated the British frigate HMS Java. The president reportedly expressed his wishes that the Center would live up to the high standards established by Commodore Bainbridge.

Once the gates were opened for recruits on October 11, 1942, the first busloads of recruits arrived from transportation collection points at Havre de Grace and Perryville, MD. The recruits were given a battery ofr teststo determine their educational and skill levels, then trained in indoctrination, ordnance and gunnery, seamanship, fire fighting, physical training and military drill.

Part of each recruit’s training included the ignoble “service week” training, which occurred halfway through boot camp training and included kitchen duty, peeling potatoes, mopping, picking up “butts”, etc. However, the more fortunate recruits with special desirable skills, such as typing, could end up on an office typewriter rather than in a kitchen.

Military recruits were also trained in shipboard duties. However, these “shipboard duties” were aboard the R.T.S. Commodore, a relatively large ship built on dry land. The dry land-bound ship was equipped with most of the facilities found on a real ship, including deck guns, pilot house, davits with whaleboats, and mooring lines fastened to earth-bound bollards, so that crew members could even learn casting off hawsers and other lines connecting the ship to its dock.

By the end of World War II, the center had trained a total of 244,277 recruits who were formally graduated and transferred to various ships and stations throughout the world. After World War II, the center continued limited operations until June 30, 1947, when it was first inactivated as a Navy training center.

Non-recruit training

A total of 24,484 recruit graduates were trained and graduated during World War II with technical skills under the direction of the Service School Command.

The following activities, under the control of the Service School Command and the Administrative Command, were located in the Naval Training Center during World War II and were not part of the Recruit Training Command portion of the Naval Training Center:

  • Coast Guard School
  • Rockefeller Research Unit (Report to Naval Training Station).
  • Stewards Mates’ School Roll
  • Naval Academy Preparatory School
  • Naval Hospital
  • Hospital Corps School
  • Naval Training School (Radio)
  • Naval Training School (Fire Controlmen)
  • Fire Fighters School
  • Naval Training School (Electrical)
  • Naval Training School (Physical Instructors)
  • Naval Training School (Instructors)
  • Naval Training School (Sound Motion Picture Technician)
  • Fire Fighters Training Unit)
  • Naval Training School (Motion Picture Operators)
  • Naval Training School (Recruit Instructors – C)

After World War II, the center was deactivated in 1947, and only school remining at the center was then the Naval Academy Prep School, which continued to operate at Bainbridge until it was moved to Newport, Rhode Island, in August 1974.

For further information and History go to:

CVS-11 Nuclear Policy/Ops

The Visit by USS Intrepid (CVS-11) to Copenhagen, 1971

The USS Intrepid (CVS-11) arrived in Copenhagen in July 1971, only three years after Denmark’s non-nuclear policy was tested by the crash of a nuclear-armed bomber in Greenland. The visit created little controversy and the Danish government turned a blind eye to what appears to be one of the clearest violations of Denmark’s prohibition against nuclear weapons in its ports.

The USS Intrepid was converted from an attack carrier (CVA) to an anti-submarine carrier (CVS) in 1969 following operations against North Vietnam. The ship was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet and home ported in Quonset Point, Rhode Island, then the center of all carrier-based anti-submarine forces in the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. As an anti-submarine carrier the mission of USS Intrepid was to hunt down and destroy Soviet submarines. In the North Atlantic training for this mission brought the ship deep into the Baltic Sea and high up into the Norwegian Sea in 1971 and 1972 on exercises.

The 1971 Deployment

The USS Intrepid formed the center of Task Force 83.2, which during the extended overseas deployment encountered “considerable Soviet surveillance.” Embarked on the USS Intrepid during the 1971 deployment were Air Antisubmarine Squadron TWENTY-FOUR (VS-24) and Air Antisubmarine Squadron TWENTY-SEVEN (VS-27) wings. The task force also included several other nuclear-capable warships, including the diesel submarine USS Greenfish (SS-351) which also carried nuclear weapons during the deployment and visited Århus, Denmark, while the carrier was in Copenhagen. The extensive deployment reached from the Mediterranean to the Baltic Sea and Barents Sea.

USS Intrepid (CVS-11) Operations – April-Octobeer 1971

The task force left Quonset Point on April 16 for a visit to Lisbon, Portugal, after which it steamed north for NATO exercise Rusty Razor and a port visit to Plymouth in the United Kingdom. After Plymouth, USS Intrepid and part of Task Force 83.2 entered the Kattegat, transited the narrow Danish Straits on May 16 to became the first U.S. aircraft carrier to conduct operations in the Baltic Sea.

During the operations in the “Sea of Peace,” the USS Intrepid conducted flight operations and sailed to within only 20 miles of the Soviet coastline. Continuous anti-submarine operations were conducted and “numerous Soviet submarines were detected, prosecuted and kept under surveillance.” An anti-submarine warfare demonstration was performed for Kontra-Admiral Kierkegaard and visiting Swedish dignitaries. The operations in the Baltic were later heralded by U.S. Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Zumwalt to be “superb in a situation that demanded no less.”

After the Baltic operations and a four-day visit to Kiel, West Germany, USS Intrepid left the Baltic and sailed south to the Mediterranean Sea where it conducted port visits in France, Italy, and Spain. During an anti-submarine exercise with the USS Greenfish, an “intruder submarine contact was detected, prosecuted for 3 hours, photographed and evaluated as a Soviet Victor Class SSN.”

On July 6, the USS Intrepid sailed north again to Hamburg, West Germany, after which the carrier continued to Copenhagen where it arrived on July 21 for a week stay.

On July 28, the USS Intrepid departed Copenhagen enroute Greenock, Scotland, and after a week in port the carrier sailed north into the Norwegian Sea for NATO exercise Alert Lancer. During the exercise, the carrier’s anti-submarine squadron gained numerous contacts with Soviet November class and diesel submarines.

Following a visit to Portsmouth in the United Kingdom and Bergen in Norway, USS Intrepid  steamed far north into the Norwegian Sea for NATO exercise Royal Night. This was an advanced strike fleet exercise where USS Intrepid joined forces with two other aircraft carriers (USS Independence and HMS Ark Royal). USS Intrepid’s mission was to “sanitize” the waters for enemy submarines to enable the strike carriers to sail far enough north for their aircraft to strike the Kola Peninsula.

B57 Nuclear Strike/Depth Bomb

The light-weight B57 nuclear strike/depth bombs carried onboard USS Intrepid (CVS-11) during its port visit to Copenhagen in 1971 each had a yield of 15-20 kilotons


Nuclear Weapons Operations

After the visit to Copenhagen and the completion of the extended deployment deep into the Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea, the USS Intrepid returned on October 15 to its homeport in Quonset Point, Rhode Island, on the U.S. East Coast. Two more nuclear weapons security exercises were held inport before the ship sailed to Naval Ammunition Depot (NAD) Earle in New Jersey to offload all weapons prior to a shipyard period. The weapons offloaded at Earle included the ship’s complement of nuclear weapons, an operation that took approximately three hours to complete. The ship’s deck log explicitly mentions that the offload included nuclear weapons and that it was the Chopsticks team that carried out the operation: “12:15 Went to CHOPSTICKS stations for offload of NucWeapons. 15:12 Secured from CHOPSTICKS.”

USS Intrepid (CVS-11) Nuclear Weapons Offload After Copenhagen
Excerpt from USS Intrepid (CVS-11) Deck Log documenting offload of nuclear weapons after an extended overseas deployment and port visit to Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1971. Click the image to download high-resolution PDF-version of deck log pages (requires Adobe Acrobat).

Even if one believe that the USS Intrepid offloaded the nuclear weapons in another port before arriving in Copenhagen and then picked them up again after the visit — something retired U.S. Navy officials have always insisted the U.S. Navy never did, the route of the USS Intrepid rules out that possibility: None of the ports visited prior to Copenhagen were re-visited after Copenhagen . There is also no mentioning in the documents that the weapons were offloaded to another warship — something retired U.S. Navy officials also have insisted the U.S. Navy avoided — prior to the arrival in Copenhagen.

The nuclear operations of the USS Intrepid around the time of its 1971 port visit to Copenhagen, as recorded in the ship’s command history, deck log, and other official documents, are listed in the following table:

USS Intrepid Nuclear Operations Around Denmark Visit, 1971
Date Description & Remarks
01/07/71 Following a brief shipyard period to repair storm damage, a nuclear weapons accident exercise was held onboard while inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 14:37 Broken CHOPSTICKS drill. Material condition ZEBRA set.
01/18-02/01/71 Conducted antisubmarine training against the nuclear submarines USS Nautilus (SSN-571) and USS Skate (SSN-578).
02/08/71 Inport Quonset Point, RI. Designated nuclear weapons personnel returning to the ship included Gunner’s Mate Technician (GMT) Greenovich, D B160924. [The Deck Log entry is listed on 9 February.]
02/18/71 An ammunition onload took place while inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 14:00 Secured pier to automobile traffic while loading ammunition. 14:45 Ammunition load complete.
02/25/71 Nuclear weapons handling was conducted onboard while the ship was underway off the U.S. East Coast.
Deck Log: 12:30 Called away CHOPSTICKS stations. 12:55 Commenced operation CHOPSTICKS.
02/28/71 Underway as before. More nuclear weapons handling conducted.
Deck Log: 8:30 Called away CHOPSTICKS.  10:13 Secured from CHOPSTICKS.
03/04/71 Another 28 degree roll is suffered during a storm following an exercise off the East Coast. The roll “caused considerable damage throughout the ship.”
03/22/71 Inport Quonset Point, RI, where ammunition was loaded onboard.
Deck Log: 8:20 Commenced taking on ammunition.15:45 Secured from taking on ammunition.
03/30/71 Another ammunition onload occurred while inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 10:00 Commenced loading ammunition. 11:30 All ammunition on deck. Ammunition onload complete.
04/05/71 More ammunition was loaded onboard.
Deck Log: 13:40 Commenced loading ammunition. 14:10 Completed ammunition on load.
04/13/71 A nuclear weapons accident exercise was held while inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 11:00 Commenced CHOPSTICKS operation. 13:45 Commenced Broken CHOPSTICKS and general quarters. 14:20 Secure from CHOPSTICKS.
04/16/71 Departed Quonset Point, RI, for a six-month deployment of extended overseas operations in the Mediterranean, Eastern Atlantic, and Baltic Sea operations IAW COMASWGRU FOUR OPORD 4-71.
During this cruise, the ships Weapons Department included a Special Weapons (W) Division team of 19 personnel. Air Antisubmarine Squadrons TWENTY FOUR (VS-24) and TWENTY SEVEN (VS-27) were embarked. The escort includes the conventionally powered submarine USS Greenfish (SS-351).
04/16/71 A nuclear weapons accident exercise was conducted onboard while underway from Quonset Point, RI, enroute Portugal.
Deck Log: 14:03 Commenced Broken CHOPSTICKS drill. Sounded general quarters. 14:23 Set CIRCLE WILLIAM throughout the ship. 14:56 Relaxed CIRCLE WILLIAM. 15:09 Set material YOKE. 15:20 Secured from general quarters.
04/17/71 Another nuclear weapons security exercise while underway enroute from Quonset Point, RI, to Lisbon, Portugal.
Deck Log: 7:00 Called away CHOPSTICKS stations. 9:19 Penetration. 9:23 Secure from penetration drill. 15:26 Secured from CHOPSTICKS.
05/03/71 After Lisbon, Portugal, the ship departed for Plymouth, England, in company with units of Task Group 400.1. Transit IAW RUSKY RAZOR Joint Exercise OPORD 1-71.
05/16/71 Following a visit to Portsmouth, England, the ship continued to a port visit to Kiel, West Germany, and operations in the Baltic Sea. The transit to Kiel was done IAW COMASWGRU FOUR OPORD 4-71.
The USS Intrepid become the first U.S. carrier to conduct flight operations in the Eastern Baltic.  Escorted by three other U.S. warships, the operations brought the ship to within only 20 miles of the Soviet coastline. Soviet surface, submarine and air surveillance was considerable. Admiral Zumwalt, U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, subsequently praised the ship’s performance as “superb in a situation that demanded no less.” Numerous Soviet submarines were detected, prosecuted and kept under surveillance. During operations in the Baltic the ship passed through the Bornholmsgat from the Baltic Sea.
When transiting the Danish Straits, the Danish pilots Captain Jørgensen and Hansen were brought onboard by helicopter.
05/26/71 Following the visit to Kiel, West Germany, the USS Intrepid was dispatched to the Mediterranean Sea where a Soviet Victor class SSN was detected and photographed. The transit occurred IAW COMASWGRU FOUR LOI 4-71.
During passage out through the Danish Straits, the Danish pilots Captain Thesmer and Captain Nielsen embarked.
07/21-28/71 In Copenhagen, Denmark, following a transit from the Mediterranean. Also present was USS N. K. Perry (DD-883).
Danish docking pilot was Captain Jacobsen, and Channel Pilot was Captain Petersen.
Upon arrival the ship received visits from several high-ranking officials, including the U.S. Ambassador to Denmark, Danish Chief of Defense, Commander of Copenhagen Captain Kisum and Captain Prause.
The inport period only lasted until 25 July, when the ship was moved outside port and anchor was dropped at Middelgrund, still in Danish territorial waters. This move occurred while the U.S. Ambassador was onboard.
When departing, Danish pilots were Captain Thodsen and Captain Albertsen.
09/22-25/71 Inport Bergen, NorwayAlso present were USS Kennedy (DD-850) and USS Taussig (FF-1030). During the port call the ship was visited by Norwegian Minister of Defense and the German Minister of Defense.
The visit took place following operations in the Norwegian Sea against the submarines USS Bluefish and USS Sirago and “Soviet vessels of opportunity.” Numerous contacts were made with Soviet November class and diesel submarines. The U.S. Ambassador to Norway and Norwegian Minister of Defense officials visited the squadron during this period.
Following the visit the ship participated in NATO exercise Royal Knight.
10/15/71 Returned to Quonset Point, RI.
10/16/71 While inport Quonset Point, RI, the ship offloaded ammunition.
Deck Log: 13:06 Commenced offloading ammunition. 14:19 Completed offloaded ammunition.
10/20/71 A nuclear weapons security drill was held while inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 1137 Conducted penetration drill. 11:41 Secured from penetration drill.
10/28/71 Another nuclear weapons security drill was conducted. Inport Quonset Point, RI.
Deck Log: 14:02 Held Penetration drill. 14:07 Secured from penetration drill.
11/30-12/01/71 At NAD [NWS] Earle, NJ, for ammunition offload prior to shipyard period. Weapons offloaded included nuclear weapons.
Deck Log: (11/30) 9:50 Commenced offload of ammunition. (12/01) 00-04 Ammunition off-load is in progress. 12:15 Went to CHOPSTICKS stations for “offload of NucWeapons.” 15:12 Secured from CHOPSTICKS. 15:15 Completed offloading of ammo, 283 tons total.

Operations in 1972 and 1973

The USS Intrepid returned to Europe and to Copenhagen in 1972, and the documents strongly suggest that the ship was once again nuclear armed. The Chopstick deck handling crew was drilled in how to respond to a nuclear weapons accident. The drill was preparation for a subsequent nuclear weapons certification inspection which the ship must pass in order to have nuclear weapons onboard.

The Nuclear [Navy] Technical Proficiency Inspection (NTPI) was passed in May 1972 “with the Squadron’s loading teams performing their loads satisfactorily.” Yet the documents reveal that part of the carrier’s response to a simulated nuclear weapons accident was not sufficient, so before USS Intrepid was allowed to leave for Europe with nuclear weapons onboard, the crew underwent additional training to pass the certification. Finally, in late June, only a month before the ship arrived in Copenhagen, the USS Intrepid passed its certification inspection. While underway to Denmark, a nuclear weapons security practice was held onboard. USS Intrepid arrived in Copenhagen on July 25 for a week long visit.

After the visit, USS Intrepid steamed north into the Norwegian Sea to conduct anti-submarine operations. During the operations in the Norwegian Sea, the carrier crossed the Arctic Circle and sailed as high north as 75N 27.16E and as far east as 72.25.2N 31-40.8E, the farthest east a U.S. aircraft carrier had ever been in that region up to that time. “Needless to say, Soviet interest in the ship’s activities was extremely high,” the ship’s Command History stated.

USS Intrepid (CVS-11) Underway
During operations in the Noregian Sea in 1972, the USS Intrepid (CVS-11) sailed farther east toward the Soviet Kola Peninsula than any other U.S. aircraft carrier until that time.

After a visit to Bergen in Norway, USS Intrepid returned to its home ports in Quonset Point, RI. During the transit, more nuclear weapons training was held onboard. Once back in the United States, the USS Intrepid began upgrading from anti-submarine carrier to strike carrier. The air wing was added more A-4E Skyhawk strike aircraft which “gave the INTREPID a strike capability and enabled her to subsequently commence phasing into the ‘CV’ concept.” The anti-submarine mission was retained as well.

The new strike mission was practiced during an overseas deployment to the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean Sea beginning in November 1972. A few days before arriving in Athens, Greece, the crew practiced bringing nuclear weapons up from the Special Weapons Magazine to the strike aircraft on the flight deck. During the Mediterranean deployment, the USS Intrepid conducted “two launch Sequence Plans and numerous single aircraft special weapons loads.”

The 1973 Mediterranean cruise would be USS Intrepid’s last overseas deployment. The carrier returned to the U.S. East Coast in May 1973, but before it arrived in its homeport the USS Intrepid conducted a unique offload of nuclear weapons and other ammunition at sea to the ammunition ship USS Santa Barbara (AE-28). The nuclear portion of the weapons transfer took three and a half hours. It is unclear why the navy decided to conduct this risky nuclear operation at sea, a procedure the U.S. Navy normally tried to avoid, rather than offloading the nuclear weapons at NAD Earle as it was done in 1971.

The USS Intrepid finally returned to NAS Quonset Point, RI, two days later where it began  preparations for transferring to the reserve fleet and eventually decommissioning a year later on 15 March 1974.

© Hans M. Kristensen | | 2004-2005

Capt. John W. Fair, USN

Captain John W. Fair, USN, Commanding Officer, July 15, 1966 – June 26, 1967

1940 – U.S.M.C.

1941 – Naval Aviation Training, Pensacola, FL

1942 – Commissioned Naval Aviator

1943 – Flight Instructor, Miami, FL

1944 – Fighter Squadron 13, Aboard USS Ticonderoga, Pacific Theatre

1944 – VF-80, aboard USS Hancock, Pacific Theatre

1947 – VF-92, Executive Officer

1948 – VF-74, Commanding Officer

1951 – Ass’t BUAER Rep. and Contractor Administrator, Detroit

1953 – Air Officer, USS Bennington

1955 – Officer-In-Charge Advanced Trng. Unit 203, Chase Field, TX

1957 – Commanding Officer, Carrier Attack Air Wing One

1959 – Staff, Commander, Fleet Air, Jacksonville, FL

1961 – Attended Naval War College

1962 – Head, Aviation Planning Requirement Branch, Office of CNO

1964 – Commanding Officer, USS Arcturus

1965 – Harvard University, Attended Advance Manaement Program

1966 – Ass’t Chief of Staff, Readiness, Commander, Naval Air Force, Atlantic

1966 – 1967 – Commanding Officer of Intrepid from July `966 – June 1967

Captain John Warren Fair reported to Intrepid from the Staff of Commander, Naval Air Force, Atlantic, where he served as Assistant Chief of Staff, Readiness.

Born at Big Point, Mississippi, Captain Fair began his career as a Marine at Quantico, VA in 1940.

As a fighter pilot in WWII, he earned the Silver Star, Air Medal with Gold Star, Navy Unit Citation, and the designation “Ace” for downing five enemy aircraft.

Born, November 19, 2910, Died, May 10, 1992

Capt. G. Macri, USN

Captain G. Macri, USN – Commanding Officer – May 13, 1965 – July 15, 1966

1941 – Class of 1941, USNA

1942 – USS Cincinnati

1943 – Designated Naval Aviator

– Executive Officer, Torpedo Squadron 6

1945 – Commanding Officer, Torpedo Squadron 40

– Officer-in-Charge, Advanced Training Squadron 5

1947 – Commanding Officer, Attack Squadron 175

1948 – Naval War College

1950 – Air Officer, USS Oriskany

1951 – Joint Staff, Joint Chief of Staff

1953 – Executive Officer, all Weather Attack Squadron 35

1956 – Commanding Officer, Carrier Air Task Group 2

1957 – Program Manager, BUAER, All Weather Fighter Program

1958 – Operations Officer, Carrier Division 4

1961 – Head, Air Warfare Branch, OPNAV

1962 – Commanding Officer, USS Rigel

1965 – Commanding Officer, USS Intrepid

Awards: Distinguished Flying Cross, Air medal with four stars, Presidential Unit Citation, Navy Commendation and Appropriate Campaign, Occupation and Service Medals.

CAPT Macri died 10/25/1994 and is buried in Arlington Cemetery, Section 60, Site 5872 Memorial #38791337