U.S. Government – Separation of Powers

America was governed under the Articles of Confederation from 1781 to 1789. Unable to redress the problem of “majority tyranny”, the Articles were abandoned in  favor of the Constitution, which created a “more perfect union“.

The Separation of Powers

Separation of powers is the central structural feature of the United States Constitution. The division of power among the three branches – legislative, executive, and judicial – is necessitated because human beings are imperfect. The imperfection of human nature means that well-structured government is necessary, though not sufficient, to prevent tyranny.

The United States Constitution is structurally designed in part to prevent tyranny. Separation of powers is the means by which power is divided and its accumulation in the hands of any single entity denied.

In order for separation of powers to work, each branch of government must have the “constitutional means” to resist the encroachment of the other branches. This is what today we call “checks and balances“.

In addition to institutional checks and balances, there exist also the “personal motives” of people that will lead them to resist the encroachment of the other branches.

Human nature is constant across the ages, and human beings are naturally ambitious. Instead of ignoring or attempting to suppress ambition, the Framers of the Constitution sought to channel it through the Constitution, so that it might serve the casue of liberty and justice rather than threaten it.

The Framers understood that human nature has noble characteristics that are essential to self-government, but also that it contains baser features, for which government must account. The Constitutions’s structural separation of powers recognizes this truth, and in preventing tyranny makes self-government possible.

The spearation of powers helps to ensure good government at the same time it guards against tyranny.

Independent in function but coordinated in the pursuit of justice, the three branches of government must each have enough power to resist the encroachment of the others, and yet not so much that the liberty of the people is lost.

A political regime has three dimensions: the ruling institutions, the rulers, and the way of life of the people. In America, the rulers – the people themselves – and their ruling institutions – staffed by the people’s representatives – aim at securing the Creator – endowed natural rights of all citizens. The Framers did this in wo ways. “Vertically”… considered, our rulling institutions are defined by federalism, or the division of power between the national, state, and local governments. “Horizontally”… considered, the ruling institutions of the federal government itself are separated and co-equal.

In the American regime, the Constitution is the “supreme law of the land“.

No one branch is superior to it; all three branches have a duty to abode by it. While each of the three branches plays a unique role in the passage, execution, and interpretation of laws, all of the branches must work together in the governing process.

The legislative branch is closest to the people. It is also the branch in which the danger of majority tyranny lurks.

The passions of the people are reflected most in the House of Representatives, where the members are elected for terms of two years. The Senate, with its six year terms, was designed to be a more stable legislative presence than the House.

The defining characteeristic of the executive branch is “energy.” The president can and must act swiftly and decisively to deal with foreign threats and to enforce the law, and can also provide a check on legislative tyranny through the veto.

Members of the judiciary branch, must exercise judgment in particular cases to secure individual rights. Through “judicial review”, the judiciary is given the authority to strike down laws that are contrary to the Constitution. But judicial review is not judicial supremacy; even the Supreme Court must rely upon the other branches once it has rendered judgment.

The checks that each branch can exercise against the encroachment o the others ultimately protect the liberties of the people. The separation of powers promotes justice and good government by having each branch perform its proper function. This institutional design allows the sovereign people to observe and to know which branch is responsible for which actions in order to hold each to account. The sense of mutual responsibility built into the separation of powers is a reflection of the moral and civic responsibility all Americans share.

This important point is missed by the Supreme Court’s misinterpretation, repeated numerous times since 1947, of Thomas Jefferson’s “wall of separation between church and state” metaphor.

At the heart of the American constitutional crisis of the mid-nineteenth century stood the moral, social, and political evil of slavery. At stake in this crisis was the future of republican self-government.

Abraham Lincoln saw the dilemma facing the nation as the “crisis of a house divided”. For Lincoln, “popular sovereignty” was an abandonment of moral principle.

Man does not have a moral right to choose a moral wrong…Self-government cannot mean ruling other human beings without their consent…no matter what any current issues may be presented to be “for the best interest of the people“.

Source: Hillsdale College


The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence 

The Constitution, then, is a work of art. It gives America its form. To fully know the ‘cause”, or purpose, of America, one must know the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson, its author, mentioned four thinkers for their contribution to molding “the American mind”: Aristotle, Cicero, Algernon Sidney, and John Locke. 

The soul of the American founding is located in the enduring political principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence

 The meaning of these principles, especially equality, is decisively different than the definition given to those principles by modern progressivism. 

Equality means that nature ordains no one to be the ruler of any other person. Each human being is also equal in his natural rights to life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness. These rights are inalienable and possessed simply by virtue of being human. 

Equality, liberty, and natural rights require that legitimate government be republican. The truth that all human beings are born free, equal, and independent means that a just government must be based on the consent of the governed – a consent which must be expressed through ongoing elections. The political theory of the Declaration of Independence requires that government secure the natural rights of the citizens through adopting and enforcing criminal laws; adopting and enforcing civil laws regarding property, family, education, and provision for the poor; and providing for national defense. 

If a political party fails to operate according to these principles, the people have a right and duty to establish a new system to secure their rights that are deemed to be in jeopardy by the  failing controlling system that is in place…by their vote.

The people thus play a vital role in protecting their rights. They must be educated in “religion, morality, and knowledge”. A people that is not virtuous will not be able to perpetuate free government. 

Modern liberalism uses the same language of “equality” as the Declaration of Independence. Yet modern liberals mean something altogether different than what the Founders meant by those words. For the Progressives, “equality”means that government must redistribute wealth to provide equal access to resources. This idea necessitates government programs that help mankind liberate itself from its “natural limitations”. 

The declaration of Independence and modern Progressivism are fundamentally opposed to each other. The modern misunderstanding of “equality” threatens the whole of the American constitutional and moral order. 

Source: Hillsdale College




 C E L E B R A T I N G 1 0 0 Y E A R S O F N A V A L A V I A T I O N

 The First 100 Years

By VADM. Robert F. Dunn, USN (Ret)

 FEBRUARY 17, 1911, Glenn Curtiss’ “Hydroaeroplane” flies out to and is hoisted aboard USS Pennsylvania, anchored in San Diego Bay. The seaplane is later returned to the water and Curtiss flies back to North Island, today considered the birthplace of naval aviation and contributed a major role in minimizing the

U-boat threat. At the same time,  other naval aviators, including Towers and Kenneth Whiting, were detailed to Europe to observe our allies. The English were foremost in recognizing the value of naval aviation well beyond anti-submarine

efforts. It was the Royal Navy that flew fighters from improvised cruiser and battleship decks to repel German Zeppelin raids, and developed the world’s first aircraft carrier from a merchant hull, HMS Argus. Reports from Towers and

Whiting convinced American political and naval officials to authorize the procurement of more aircraft for the fleet, and to convert the collier Jupiter into the first American carrier, USS Langley.

Plans originally made in 1914 to fly across the Atlantic had to be put on hold. Then, in 1919, with Towers in charge, three aircraft started out from Rockaway, N.Y., crossed Halifax, Newfoundland, the Azores and Lisbon, before ending the flight in England. Because of mishaps, only one aircraft — the NC-4 — completed the crossing. Not long after the NC-4 flight, Marine naval aviators developed their concept of close air support, resupply of embattled troops and medical evacuation. Since then close air support has been part of every Navy fighter and attack aviator’s training. It was a very important tactic in Korea and South Vietnam and, despite “smart weapons,” is often called for by troops on the ground in Afghanistan. Likewise, supply and medical evacuation continue askey missions for all naval service helicopters and transports alike. Even as the Marines were developing tactics for troop support, it was another battleship captain, William Adger Moffett, who consolidated aviation development into one Bureau of Aeronautics.

For 11 years, he was a most able advocate and leader of naval aviation in all its forms before he was killed when the dirigible USS Akron crashed off New Jersey in 1933. When Moffett was chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, no one could see ahead to divine what would be the most important aviation systems in the years ahead. To his credit, all available systems were explored and, within the dollars available, tested. His mantra was, “naval aviation must go to sea on the back of the fleet … the fleet and naval aviation are one and inseparable, no matter what its form.” Moffett was convinced that a major role of support for the fleet would be fulfilled by aircraft carriers. Consequently, at the Washington Naval Conference, Nov. 12, 1921- Feb. 6, 1922, he was instrumental in getting treaty authorization for the conversion of the uncompleted heavy cruisers Lexington and Saratoga into aircraft carriers. Moffett also was the point man for the Navy and naval aviation against the onslaught of Gen. Billy Mitchell and his allies, who campaigned for dependence on strategic bombing by a separate air force. Had it not been for Moffett, naval aviation might have disappeared much as did Britain’s Fleet Air Arm, overwhelmed by the Royal Air Force. Moffett held the view that naval aviation and the fleet it supported would only be successful if the airplane was fully integrated into operations at sea. Resisting the efforts of some of his battleship brethren and, indeed, some aviators, he also insisted that naval aviators be naval officers first, and aviators second. There would be no separate corps, as in the Army. After all, he argued, the very reason for naval aviation was to support the fleet. That meant that flying naval personnel had to be part of it. Not so much an engineer as he was a judge of good men, Moffett surrounded himself with experts and doers.

As a result, during his 11-year tenure naval aviation appropriations were protected and a stream of new and improved aircraft entered the fleet. He oversaw the advent of air-cooled radial engines, streamlined cowlings, closed cockpits, aircraft communications, instrument systems and a plethora of other improvements both in aircraft and shipboard aviation facilities. Even while Moffett was holding sway in Washington, yet another battleship admiral was doing good work in San Diego. In 1925, Joseph Mason Reeves hoisted his flag on USS Langley as commander, Aircraft Squadrons, Battle Fleet. Reeves arrived admittedly not knowing a lot about aviation, but it was clear to him from the beginning that what he had inherited was not going to be of much service to the fleet. There were more landing accidents than successes and Langley carried only 12 aircraft at any one time. Against the advice of several of his staff and the aviators in the two squadrons assigned, he insisted that more aircraft could be embarked and operated, perhaps as many as 42.

He also felt that even at only 16 knots, Langley could serve as an ideal stand-in forLexington and Saratoga, soon to be joining the fleet. Almost solely due to his insistence to the fleet commander, Langley joined the 1926 surprise aircraft “assault” on Pearl Harbor, an ominous foreshadowing of what was to come.

This was the first of a string of  Fleet Battle Problems in the 1920s and 1930s that demonstrated time and again the importance of naval aviation, in all its dimensions. Longrange seaplanes, battleship- and cruiser-based floatplanes as well as carrier aircraft played important roles, but it was the metamorphosis of the aircraft carrier from fleet auxiliary to centerpiece of the fleet that was most significant. It was Reeves, ably assisted by those carrier commanding officers who later became the task force commanders of World War II, who made naval aviation that centerpiece.




 C E L E B R A T I N G  1 0 0  Y E A R S   O F   N A V A L   A V I A T I O N

 On Feb. 17, 1911, inventor and aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss –  the “father of naval aviation”  –  taxied his “Hydroaeroplane,” or seaplane, to the battleship USS Pennsylvania, anchored in San Diego Bay. The plane was hoisted aboard the ship. It was later lowered back to the water and Curtiss returned to North Island.

 The U.S. Navy and its sea service partners returned to that area in February to officially kick off a year-long celebration of the 100th anniversary of naval aviation at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, regarded as the “birthplace of naval aviation.”

 Many other centennial-related events were slated to take place throughout the year, and synchronizing those events was the Centennial of Naval Aviation Task Force, established by Vice Adm. Allen G. Myers, commander, Naval Air Forces. Working with him were Lt. Gen. Terry G. Robling, deputy commandant for Marine Corps Aviation; Rear Adm. Patrick McGrath, deputy commander, Centennial, Naval Air Forces; and Capt. Mike Emerson, Coast Guard chief of Aviation. The task force’s goal was to raise public awareness of  Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and NASA aviation operations. In this special supplement,  spearheaded by Managing Editor Richard R. Burgess, Seapower also aimed to raise awareness, as well as pay tribute to those pioneers whose can-do spirit, courage and tenacity inspired today’s Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard aviators, some of whom contributed their personal perspectives for this publication.

 2011’s  Centennial of  Naval Aviation was marked with a multitude of celebratory events. From shaky beginnings in aircraft even the aviators of those days called “crates” to where naval aviation arguably is the centerpiece of all the Navy is today no small story. It is one of setting records, success in preventing war and success in war itself. It is a kaleidoscope of  leadership, people, money, legislation, materiel, machines and tactics.

 From the beginning, in 1911, the names remembered best are Ely, Ellyson, Towers, Curtiss and Chambers. Of all, it is Capt. Washington Irving Chambers who should be most remembered and most honored. True, Eugene Ely was the first to launch from and land on a ship; Theodore Ellyson was Naval Aviator No. 1; John Towers was Naval Aviator No. 3 and the longest serving. Glenn Curtiss built most of the first Navy airplanes and showed how an aircraft could be landed on the water next to a ship, then be hoisted aboard and lowered again to the water for another mission.

 But it was Chambers, a battleship Sailor, who arranged to procure the first U.S. Navy aircraft. It was Chambers who introduced a scientific approach for the improvement of airplanes, and signed the first engineers to help in the solution of early aeronautical problems and personally influenced the development of the shipboard catapult. From the beginning, capable catapults were seen as the key to making aviation useful to the fleet. With the use of a catapult, increasing numbers of catapultcapable floatplanes took their place in the fleet. Their missions included scouting and light logistics, and they made up the Base Force of the 1920s and ’30s. It was not until the helicopter came along after World War II that the floatplanes were replaced.

 Early successes notwithstanding, the American aviation industry soon lagged. When World War I broke out, U.S. forces had to be equipped with planes of foreign manufacture. Then, to fill the sudden need for more pilots, the first Naval Re servists were recruited, some paying for training themselves. Flying from bases in England, France and Italy, they played

Waypoints in History

November 14, 1910: Eugene Ely, seated in a Curtiss Pusher, conducts first flight  launched from a ship, Birmingham, anchored at Hampton Roads, Va.

January 18, 1911:Ely, for first time, lands and then takes off from ramp built on Pennsylvania, anchored in San Francisco Bay.

MISSING – Commanding Officers

MISSING Intrepid Commanding Officers 

Capt R. J. Morgan, Jun 14, ’62 – Apr 20, ‘63

Capt J. C. Lawrence, Apr 20, ’63 – Apr 31, ‘64

Capt J. G. Smith, Apr 31, ’64 – May 3, ‘65

Capt J. W. Fair, Jul 15, ’66 – Jun 26, ‘67

Capt W. J. McVey, Jun 26, ’67 – Jun 22, ‘68 …

… Died July 18, 1920

Capt V. F. Kelly, Jun 22, ’68 – Aug 1, ‘69 …

… Died, April 10, 1985

Capt H. N. Moore, Jr., Aug 1, ’69 – Apr 1, ‘70

Capt I. W. Linder, Apr 1, ’70 – Apr 30, ‘71

Capt C. S. Williams, Jr., Apr 30, ’71 – Dec 22, ‘72

Capt R. H. Barker, Dec 22, ’72 – Aug 10, ‘73

Capt L. E. Levenson, Aug 10, ’73 – Apr 22, ‘74

If anyone has any information on the above former Commanding Officers please contact former Intrepid crew member John Simonetti at cv11texfcm@gmail com

Capt. J.L. Abbot, Jr., USN, Radm (Ret)

Captain J. Lloyd Abbot, Jr., was born in Mobile, AL, on June 26, 1918. He is the son of Captain J. Lloyd Abbot, USNR (Ret), and Mrs. Helen Abbot who were both also born in Mobile.

In 1934, Captain Abbot graduated from Murphy High School of Mobile.  After attending Spring Hill College for one year, he was appointed as a midshipman at the U.S. Naval Academy. He was graduated from the Academy in 1939 and commissioned as Ensign, U.S. Navy.

Captain Abbot’s assignments at sea have included, in 1939 to the USS Enterprise (CV-6) as Assistant Navigator; during the later part of 1939 to 1941, aboard the USS Gilmer (DD-233) in various billets, the last of which was First Lieutenanant and Gunnery Officer; in 1942 to VS-1-D14 as Flight Officer; in 1943 and 1944 to VS-66 as Commanding Officer; in 1946 to 1948 to VF-42 (Aboard the USS F.D. Roosevelt) as Commanding Officer; in 1951 and 1952 to VU-4 as Commanding Officer; in 1955 and 1956 to the USS Lake Champlain (CVA-39) as Operations Officer and Executive Officer.

In 1956 and 1957 Captain Abbot was assigned to the staff of Commander Carrier Division TWO (embarked aboard the USS Coral Sea, USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, and USS Randolph) as Operations Officer; in 1960 to the USS Valcour (AVP-55) as Commanding Officer. Upon assuming command of the USS Intrepid (CVA-11) on May 24, 1961, he thus undertook his fifth command.

Shore-duty tours during Captain Abbot’s career have included; Flight Training; at the staffs of the Chief of Naval Air Training and Chief of Naval Air Basic Training; at OPNAV; at the Armed Forces Staff College; and as Executive Officer, Bancroft Hall at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Captain Abbot married the former Miss Marjorie Grubbs of Norfolk, VA, on June 21, 1941, and have three children. Their sons, oldest, Lloyd III, and Steve, both also attained Navy Captain ranks. Admiral Abbot passed away mid 2012.

Captain Abbot has one brother, CDR R.T. Abbot, (SC) USNR, and one sister, LCDR Helen T. Abbot USNR, both of whom reside in Mobile.

Ref: Mediterranean Cruise Book – 1961-1962

Capt. C.S Minter – USN

Capt. C. S. Minter, Jr. – Sept 8, 1960 – May 24, 1961

Vice Admiral Charles S. Minter, Jr.(Charlie) b. 1915; Deceased 2008, Former Commandant of Midshipmen and Superintendent USNA 1937, Commanding Officer USS Intrepid,  Sept., 1960 to May, 1961 – RADM J.A. Abbot relieved him. 

Designated as naval aviator in 1941, Admiral Minter served as a bomber pilot in antisubmarine patrols and convoy coverage flights in the North Atlantic. Later was XO of patrol squadron in Trinidad and XO of Headquarters Squadron Nine at Quonset Point, Rhode Island. 

In 1944 was assistant air officer aboard the USS Randolph when saw action in raids on Tokyo and in the Iwo Jima and Okinawa campaigns. After serving as assistant director for Tactical Test at Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, he assumed command of Patrol Squadron 28 which engaged in reconnaissance missions and antisubmarine patrols against Korean forces. He was CO of the Albemarle, in 1958. He also served asAssistant Chief of Staff for Readiness to Cmdr Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet.  He then became Commander Fleet Air Wings Pacific, with additional duty as Commander Antisubmarine Warfare Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

His last assignment before retirement in 1974 was Deputy Chairman of the NATO Committee in the Navy Dept. His son is Charles S. Minter, II. 

Charles S. Minter, II,  is the son of VADM C. S. Minter, Jr.

Ref: USNA Membership Log – Submitted by M. Tarrant, daughter of former Intrepid Capt. Richard K. Gaines.

Capt. E. C. Outlaw, USN

Capt. E. C. Outlaw, USN, Radm (Ret) – August 30, 1959 – September 8, 1960


Born Sept 29, 1914 in Greenville, NC; USNA ’35, Retired, Durham, NC ’69.

 ADM Edward C. ‘Eddie’ Outlaw, who was a ne’rdowell at the Academy, became an outstanding fighter pilot during WWII. In fact, that war molded Outlaw into the leader he became. Those under his command as C.O. of the Intrepid during the late 1950s revered ‘Eddie’ Outlaw for his ‘atta boys’ for difficult tasks well done.

Midshipman Outlaw graduated 436th out of 442 in his 1935 Naval Academy class — 6th from the bottom. His is another shining example that neither class standing, nor the Naval Academy for that matter, make that much of a difference in whether one becomes a ‘warrior’ and a leader in wartime or not — it is the real world caldron of combat experience that defines and molds the leader — the kind the Navy needs now more than ever in the age of Political Correctness.

Flight Training, Pensacola ’37-’38. USS Enterprise, Scouting Squadron 6.  ’42 deployed to Pacific as XO (VC-11) flying F4F (Wildcats).  Led flight of 54 from Fiji to Guadalcanal to re-enforce Marine Corps.  He served there as leader of the Navy Fighter Group. 1943 formed VF-32 as CO.  Deployed on USS Langley.

On April 29, ’44, he led a flight of 8 Hellcats on a pre-dawn fighter sweep over Truk atoll; at dawn sighted a flight of about 36 Japanese Zeroes flying at 10,000 ft in column of V’s; first pass his flight flamed 8; then, exercising perfect discipline “Holly” Hills (4 kills) led his division to “high cover” where they accounted for seven of the enemy.  Cdr. Outlaw shot down 5 and 1 probable, fellow Ace, Dick May got 3 and Outlaw’s wingman 4.  Total for this brief action was 22 victories and 6 probables.  The action took place in less than ten minutes and was declared by COMNAVAIRPAC to be “a perfect example of air combat and air discipline.”Subsequently, he served three times in Pentagon; as CO of USS Duxbury Bay and USS Intrepid; as CO Air Group Six (Coral Sea); CO Heavy Attack Squadron 5 (NucWpns).

Selected to rank of Rear Admiral and served as Commander Naval Aviation Safety Center; Commander Carrier Division One and Task Force 77 of Vietnam ’64-’65 where he directed first sustained attacks; Commander CARDIVS 16 and 20 and Commander Hunter-Killer Force, Atlantic Fleet.

His last assignment was as Commander Fleet Aircraft Mediterranean/CTF-67/ and Maritime Air Mediterranean (a NATO organization of which he was the first commander).  Decorations: Navy Cross, Legion of Merit (3), DFC (3) Awards – Navy Cross, 2 distinguished Flying Crosses, 6 Air Medals, Presidential Unit Citation, Navy Unit Commendation, Phillipine Liberation Ribbon, American Defense Service Ribbon, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Ribbon, American Campaign Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal.

Capt. P. Masterton – USN

Captain P. Masterton – October 4, 1958 – October 4, 1959

No information can be found

Capt. J. H. Kuhl – USN

Captain J. H. Kuhl – October 4, 1957 – October 4, 1958

No information can be found

Capt. G.L. Kohr – USN

Captain G. L. Kohr, May 26, 1955 – August 15, 1955

No information can be found.

Capt. P.P. Blackburn, Jr. – USN

Captain Paul P. Blackburn, Jr., – August 15, 1955 – September 21, 1956

Captain Blackburn was born in Seattle, WA and was a 1930 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, and designated a naval aviator in 1932. 

He served in various carrier, observation and patrol squadrons of the fleet and was Staff Aviation Officer for the commander of the first American task force deployed to the European Theater in the early days of the war. 

In June 1942, he commanded Patrol 201 as Commanding Officer, one of the first Navy Patrol Squadrons to receive PBM aircraft. Following a tour of duty at the Bureau of Aeronautics, Washing, DC, he reported aboard the carrier USS Randolph as navigator and later became its Executive Officer. 

Following the war he was a member of the Armed Services Petroleum Board, attended the Air War College and was Assistant Chief for Operations, Training and Plans for Commander, Air Force, Atlantic Fleet.  Captain Blackburn was Commanding Officer of the USS Duxbury Bay, Flagship of Commander, Middle East Force, prior to reporting to the National War College.  From that assignment he reported to Commander, Carrier Division FOUR as Chief of Staff.

Following this he reported for duty in the Office of Naval Operations, his last duty station before reporting as Commanding Officer of the USS Intrepid

Captain Blackburn posted a letter in the 1956 Cruise Book…Clarification follows:

“For all of us who were direct participants in USS Intrepid’s Mediterranein Cruise 1956, this book is a living record of how we lived, what we did and where we went. 

It is a faithful reflection of our triumphs and our disappointments, our fears and heartaches, or achievements and our haven of fun and relaxation. 

It shows us when we stood on guard in the very forefront of our country’s defences, as Navy men have stood throughout our history against those who would threaten our homes, our families and our way of life. 

 This book will mean many different things to many people who scan its pages. To us who lived it, this book will witness that we were members of a great team, the USS Intrepid team, bound together by comaridery of service to God and our common ideas of service to our country and pride in our comradship in devotion to those ideals.

Paul P. Blackburn, Captain, U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Intrepid”

Submitted by: FCMs  J.D. McFarlan & Rich Oberheim

Capt. B.B.C. Lovett, USN

Capt. B.B. Lovett, USN – February 9, 1952 – April 9, 1952

Benjamin B. Lovett was born in Relay, MD, on February 21, 1903.

No other information is available

Ref: Mediterranean Cruise Book – 1961-1962

Capt. (Cdr) A. A. Giesser, USN

Capt. (Cmd) A. A. Giesser, USN- November 4, 1946 – March 22, 1947



Commander A.A. Giesser, with eight other officers and a comparative handful of enlisted men prepared the USS Intrepid for complete deactivation. With her guns and machinery weather-proofed and rust-proofed, the Intrepid’s status was changed on March 22, 1947 to “out of commission in reserve.” 

Ref: Mediterranean Cruise Book – 1961-1962

Capt. H. G. Sanchez, USN

Captain H. G. Sanchez, USN – 11 April, 1946 – November 4, 1946

Henry Gabriel Sanchez was born in New York, NY, on December 29, 1907.

No other details are available